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volume 1, número 2, jul./dez. 2001
Linguagem em (Dis)curso
Linguagem em (Dis)curso
volume 1, número 2,
CONSTRATIVE ANALYSIS FROM
OF UMBERTO ECO´S NOVEL
NAME OF THE ROSE’
Stringer da Fonseca
Resumo: O propósito
deste artigo é apresentar alguns procedimentos que os tradutores
devem se utilizar para superar problemas que podem ocorrer durante o processo
The purpose of this paper is
to present some of the procedures translators should use to overcome the
problems which may occur during the translation process.
To obtain a successful
translation some procedures should be taken during its process in order
to overcome some problems which may occur in situations such as: adaptations,
equivalences, transposition with different grammar structures. Else Vieira
(1992), in her article ‘Some remarks on comparative stylistics applied
to translation from English into Portuguese’, suggests that”...in the translation
process: very often we find people who comply with the basic requirements
of a good translator, i.e., fluency in the source language (SL) and a good
command of written structures in the target language (TL), yet they cannot
produce successful translations, “Indeed, sometimes the source language
has stylistic differences which cannot be literally tranlated because when
“... compared to the source text, it may give the impression of being understated
or overstated”. Therefore the translator will have to use some devices
such as adaptations or equivalences to improve the target text.
Below we will show some
passages in English and their translation into Portuguese, taken from the
novel The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco, followed by some of the procedures
the translator used in the process of transcoding.
I asked him who had put
into the crowd’s head the idea of attacking the jews. Salvatore could not
remember. I believe that when such crowds collect, lured by a promise and
immediately demanding something, there is never any knowing who among them
speaks. I recalled that their leaders had been educated in convents and
cathedral schools and they spoke the language of the lords, even if, and
they translated it into terms that the Sherpherds could understand. (p.192)
Perguntei quem tinha enfiado
na cabeça da multidão que era preciso atacar os judeus. Salvatore
não lembrava. *Acho que quando se reúne tanta gente seguindo
uma promessa e pedindo logo algo, não se sabe nunca quem está
falando dentre eles. *Pensei que os chefes deles tinham sido educados nos
conventos e nas escolas episcopais, e *falavam a linguagem dos senhores,
ainda que *a traduzissem em termos compreensíveis a pastores (p.219).
The example above and its
translation show that, although in this case literal translation would
have been correct, the translator chose not to use repetition of the personal
pronouns I and they which is obligatory in English but stylistically inadequate
The following example and
its translation show that the third person neuter pronoun it in English
is obligatory whereas in Portuguese it is omitted.
“It is our book” William
whispered to me. This is *why our dream reminded me. of something. Now
I am sure this is it. And in fact he glanced quickly at the pages immediately
preceding and following” in fact, here are the books I was thinking about,
all together. But this isn’t what I wanted to check.., “ (p. 439).
*“É o nosso livro”,
sussurou-me Guilherme, “Eis por que o teu sonho me sugeriu algo.* E agora
tenho certeza de que é este. E de fato.., “folheava com rapidez
as páginas imediatamente precedentes e as seguintes, “de fato eis
os livros em que estava pensando, todos juntos. Mas não *é
isso que queria examinar ., “ (p. 495).
Sometimes English and Portuguese
have the same grammatical category but its function differs in each language.
Below an example of this occurence shows that the subject pronoun he in
English has been replaced by the object pronoun me in Portuguese.
He replied that when your
true enemies are too strong, you have to choose weaker enemies. I reflected
this is why the simple are so called (p. 192).
Respondeu-me que, quando
os inimigos verdadeiros são demasiado fortes, é preciso então
escolher inimigos menos fortes. Reflete que por isso os simples são
assim chamados (p.219).
In the passage below an
example and its translation show that the translator has used different
symbols to provide in Portuguese equivalences of English words related
to sounds. In fact, a literal translation would be semantically incorrect.
“...Yum!” he said, and bit
into his mutton pie, but I could see on his face the grimace of the desperate
man eating the corpse. And then, not content with digging in consecrate
ground, some, worse than the others, like highway men, crouched in the
forest and took travellers by surprise, “Thwack!” Salvatore said, holding
his knife to his throat, and “nyum!” (p.118)
“...Nham!” dizia, e mordia
sua torta de ovelha, mas eu via em seu rosto o trejeito do desesperado
que comia o cadáver... E depois consagrada, uns piores que os outros,
como ladrões de estrada, ficavam de tocaia na floresta e surpreendiam
os viajantes, “Iac!” dizia Salvatore, a faca na garganta e “nham!” (p.
Still related to onomatopoeic
language is the way exclamatory words are also expressed with different
symbols in Portuguese. This is examplified in the following passage and
“Oh, poor Adso”, William
said, laughing and giving me an affectionate slap on the nape, “you’re
not really wrong!” (p.197)
“Ah, pobre Also”, riu Guilherme
dando-me um afetuoso tabefe na nuca, “não estás de todo errado!”
In conclusion, the passages
from the novel the name of the Rose, analysed in this paper have confirmed
that the translator used different devices to provide a successful translation.
First, translation of the repetition, in this case the subject pronouns
he and They would not be stylistically correct in Portuguese. Second, it
shows that the third person neuter pronoun it is not present in Portuguese.
Third, the English subject pronoun he was replaced substituted by the object
pronoun me in Portuguese, because sometimes grammatical structure has its
own characteristics and needs to be changed from one language into another.
Finally, the translator has provided equivalents for onomatopoeic and exclamatory
words which are expressed differently in Portuguese.
O nome da rosa. Brasil: Nova Fronteira, 1983.
_____. The name of the
rose. Brasil: Nova Fronteira, 1983.
KATO, M.. Uma taxonomia
da similaridade e contrastes entre línguas. In: Tópicos de
Lingüística Aplicada. Organizado por H. e Bohn P. Vandresen.
Brasil: UFSC, 1988.
SCHMITZ, J. ().
Análise contrastiva. In: Tópicos de Lingüística Aplicada. Organizado
por H. Bohn P.e Vandresen. Brazil: UFSC, 1988
on comparative stylistics applied to translation from English into Portuguese.
Professa Mara Stringer da
Fonseca teacher English,
American and British
literatures, and Teaching
universidade do Sul de Santa
Catarina - Unisul. She is
also Vice-Coordinator of the
Letters program at UNISUL.